Congressional Budget Process (BUDG8175)

Congressional Budget Process

Congressional Budget Process


This course focuses on the phase of the budgetary process that impacts every federal employee and agency – the congressional budget process. This is the phase of the budget process when Congress reviews and considers the agency’s budget submission and then decides what types and how much funding to provide to the agency. The course covers topics such as: the House and Senate Budget Committees; the congressional budget resolution process; congressional actions on authorizations and appropriations; and the budget reconciliation process.

This course is part of the Master Certificate in Federal Financial Management (MCFFM).

Who Should Attend?

Anyone who needs an overview of the congressional budget process or who needs to understand the concepts and terminology that underpin congressional budgetary actions.




16.0 CPE's

Class Type:

This course is currently being offered in the following training modalities:

Learning Outcomes:

  • Describe the federal budget and the three phases of the federal budget process
  • Identify the key legislation influencing the budget process and the control of spending
  • Discuss the budget review and enactment activities of the Congress
  • Identify the key documents used and produced during the congressional process and the purposes of each document
  • Explain the differences between a budget resolution, an authorization, and an appropriation
  • Explain how a bill becomes law
  • Explain the influence of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 on the congressional process
  • Identify the key documents used and produced during the congressional process
  • Describe the purposes of each document

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Day 1 of 2

Overview of the Budget Process

  • Separation of powers in the constitution
  • Evolution of the federal budget and financial management structure
  • The changing budget environment
  • What is a budget?
  • Size and composition of the federal budget
  • How the congressional budget process fits into the overall budget process

Basic Budget Concepts

  • How Congress provides the authority to spend
  • Types of budget authority
  • How budget authority becomes available
  • Control of outlays
  • Relation of budget authority to outlays
  • Budget baselines
  • Discretionary versus mandatory spending
  • Post budget submission interface between agencies and the Congress
  • The federal debt limit

The Congressional Budget Process

  • Congressional powers
  • Composition of the U.S. Congress
  • Leadership structure of Congress
  • Complexity of legislative rules
  • Legislative committees
  • Authorization – Appropriation process
  • Major differences between the House and Senate
  • Congressional Budget Process
  • Concurrent Budget Resolution

Day 2 of 2

The Congressional Budget Process (continued)

  • Congressional action on authorizations
  • Congressional action on appropriations
  • Continuing resolutions
  • Earmarking
  • Impoundment of budgetary authority
  • Revenue legislation

Reconciliation and Budget Enforcement

  • Purpose and intent of the reconciliation process
  • House and Senate action on omnibus reconciliation legislation
  • The sequestration process

Principal Organizations Providing Support to the Congress

  • Congressional Budget Office
  • Library of Congress
  • Congressional Research Service
  • Government Accountability Office
  • Offices of the Inspectors General
  • Government Publishing Office
  • Congressional Record

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